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SURVIVAL GLOSSARY

Glossary F

Fall Line
The physiographic border between the piedmont and coastal plain regions. The name derives from the river rapids and falls that occur as the water flows from hard rocks of the higher piedmont onto the softer rocks of the coastal plain.

Farm Pond
Small manmade body of water.

Fathom
Six feet of depth. Many nautical charts are marked in fathoms, not feet.

Fault
A fracture in the rocks along which there has been movement.

Fault Zone
A fracture in the Earth's crust along which movement has occurred. The movement may be in any direction and involve material on either or both sides of the fracture. A "fault zone" is an area of numerous fractures.

Fauna
Animal life.

Fawn
A deer in the first year of its life.

FDA
Food and Drug Administration (this is a Federal Government Agency).

Femur (biology)
The upper leg bone.

Feral Animal
A wild or untamed animal, especially one having reverted to such a state from domestication.

Fibrous
Used to describe mineral crystals that are long and thin and look like fibers.

Field Archery
An archery round in which an archer shoots from a variety of distances at targets set up in natural country.

Fillet
A piece of fish with the bones removed, cut out for human consumption.

Firewhirl
A tornado-like rotating column of fire and smoke created by intense heat from a forest fire or volcanic eruption.

Firn
Older snow on the upper portion of a glacier that is partially compacted.

Fixed Rope (climbing)
A rope secured to a fixed point. Used in Abseiling (German) or Raapelling (US English).

Fjord
A long, narrow sea inlet that is bordered by steep cliffs.

Flash Flood
A flash flood is a sudden and destructive rush of water down a narrow gully or over a sloping surface caused by heavy rainfall. Flash floods can reach their peak volume in a matter of a few minutes and often carry large loads of mud and rock fragments. (see more about flash floods)

Flats
Very shallow water, where water is still and easy to wade, usually with a sand bottom.

Flemish String
A twisted string that consists of two separate bundles of string hand twisted together.

Fletch
To glue a feather or vane to an arrow shaft.

Fletcher
A person who makes arrows.

Fletching Jig
A device used to hold the arrow shaft in place and correctly locate and align the placement of the fletching.

Fletching (hunting)
The feathers or vanes on an arrow. Originally made of split turkey feathers, most vanes are now plastic.

Flintlock (hunting)
A primitive muzzleloading rifle fired by means of a hammer carrying a piece of flint that strikes a frizzen, showering sparks into the pan below that is primed with gunpowder, which carries a flame into barrel of the gun, igniting the powder within.

Floating Line (fishing)
Fishing line that is lighter than water and floats on the surface.

Flood
High water flow or an overflow of rivers or streams from their natural or artificial banks, inundating adjacent low lying areas.

Flood Plain
Level land that may be submerged by flood waters.

Flood Stage
The level of a river or stream where overflow onto surrounding areas can occur.

Flute (hunting)
The most popular type of goose call, generally 8 to 10 inches long.

Fluvial
Migrating between main rivers and tributaries. Of or pertaining to streams or rivers.

Fog Bank
A fairly well-defined mass of fog observed in the distance. Most commonly seen at sea, over a lake, or along coastal areas.

Follow-Up Shot (hunting)
The second shot that a hunter must fire if he has wounded a big-game animal.

Foredune
The front dune immediately behind the backshore.

Forest
A large tract of land covered with trees and underbrush; extensive wooded area.

Fork (river)
The place where a stream or tributary joins a river.

Forkhorn (hunting)
A deer with two points on each of his antlers, sometimes known as a "two-point" in the West.

Freestone Stream
A creek or river that gets most of its water flow from rainfall or snow/glacier melt. Freestone streams are most common in mountainous regions. The name freestone refers to the fact that typical freestone streams have a bottom of stones or gravel.

Freshwater
In a broad sense 'freshwater' is used for all continental aquatic systems such as rivers and lakes. In a technical sense it refers to water with less than 0.5 grams per liter of total dissolved mineral salts.

Frizzen (hunting)
A strike plate for the flint attached to the hammer of a flintlock rifle. When the hammer strikes the metal frizzen, sparks shower into the pan and conduct fire into the barrel of the gun, igniting the gunpowder within.

Frostbite
Skin that is damaged by exposure to freezing temperatures. (see more about frostbite)

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