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SURVIVAL GLOSSARY

Glossary S

Sabot (hunting)
A bullet encased in a plastic jacket that falls away when the bullet is fired. In this scenario, a .223 bullet can be fired from a .30-06, and a copper jacketed bullet can be fired from a muzzleloader.

Saddle Carbine (hunting)
A short-barreled rifle made specifically to fit into a scabbard on a saddle, usually based on a lever-action design.

Salinity
The amount of salt dissolved in water.

Salt Marsh
A type of marsh that is a transitional zone between land and an area, such as a slough, bay, or estuary, with salty or brackish water.

Santa Ana Winds
Relatively warm, dry winds that blow into Southern California coastal areas from an anticyclone located over the high deserts of California or Nevada. The warmth and dryness are due to compressional heating.

Savanna
A plain characterized by coarse grasses and scattered tree growth, especially on the margins of the tropics where the rainfall is seasonal, as in eastern Africa. 2. Grassland region with scattered trees, grading into either open plain or woodland, usually in subtropical or tropical regions.

Scabbard
A case for a rifle that is hung from a saddle.

Scales (of a fish)
A small, flattened, rigid plate forming a part of the external body covering of fish.

Scarp
An almost vertical slope along the beach caused by erosion by wave action. It may vary in height from a few inches to several feet, depending on wave action and the nature and composition of the beach.

Scent Mound (hunting)
A small pile of leaves, sticks and wet mud, usually close to the water's edge, made by a beaver to mark its territory and/or communicate with other beavers. After constructing such a mound, the beaver deposits scent from glands on the pile.

Scope
Short for telescopic sight, a scope is a tube with magnifying optics mounted atop a hunting rifle for accurate shot placement by means of a set of cross hairs that can be adjusted for windage and elevation.

Scrub Oak
A term for Gambel's oak, which covers many Western mountainsides at elevations between 5,000 and 8,000 feet. The acorns from Gambel's oak are important forage for bears and deer, and the tips of the brush provide important winter browse for deer and elk. The brush typically grows in very close thickets, sometimes blanketing entire mountainsides, and typically grows ten or 15 feet tall and 8" at the butt, though in some instances it will grow to 35 feet and 16" or so at the butt.

Sea
A large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. A sea may be partly or completely surrounded by land. (see more about seas)

Sea Level
Sea Level is the normal level of the sea's surface, halfway between mean high and low tide levels.

Seam
A calm spot caused by an obstruction in a river such as a rock or log.

Seamount
An underwater mountain that rises at least 1000 meters above the sea floor. Some seamounts rise above the water's surface.

Sediment
Small particles of soil or rocks that are transported by water or wind.

Sedimentary Rock
Rock formed by the hardening of material deposited in some process; most commonly sandstone, shale, and limestone.

Seed
The part of a plant from which another plant can grow.

Seiche
A Series of standing waves in an enclosed (or partially enclosed) body of water, like a lake, bay, or river.

Seismograph
An instrument that measures and records the Earth's vibrations.

Semi-arid
Receiving between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation annually.

Serving (hunting)
A thinner more abrasive resistant string material that is "wrapped"(served) around the string bundle to prevent wear and damage to bow strings at critical points. Specifically the string and the cable ends where the strings wrap around the cams, and also the "center" serving where the caliper release, or fingers would wear the string.

Shed Antlers (hunting)
Antlers that have dropped from the skull of a deer, elk, moose, or caribou in the spring without harm to the animal.

Sheet (boating)
Rope attached at the back lower corner of a sail to trim the sail for the wind direction.

Shoal
A submerged ridge, bank, or bar consisting of, or covered by, unconsolidated sediments (mud, sand, gravel).

Shrink Tube (hunting)
Borrowed from our friends in the electrical industry, shrink tube is primarily used on arrow rest prongs to "silence" the arrow on draw and release. Basically it is a plastic sleeve the forms itself to the shape of the prongs when heated.

Sight Bait (hunting)
Any bait, large or small, which is left visible at a trap set as an attractant for furbearers. Sight baits are illegal in most states within a specified distance of traps, because of the danger of catching birds of prey.

Sight Level
A bubble level that is attached to the sight (similar to carpenters or plumbers levels) that let you know if you are holding your bow up straight. Aids in accuracy, and developing a consistent form.

Silk
A fibrous material that is produced by spiders and some insects.

Silt
Very tiny particles of soil or rocks that are 3 to 60 micrometers in diameter.

Siltation
The deposit or accumulation of very tiny soil particles (silt).

Single Rope (technique) (climbing)
Technique employing a single rope iwhich is attached at one or both ends.

Sinking Line (fishing)
Heavier than water and useful when fishing in still waters.

Sitka Deer
A subspecies of the blacktail that is found primarily in the Alaskan coastal islands.

Slate Call (hunting)
Originally made of slate, these callers can also be made from glass, aluminum, titanium and other materials. Dragging a wooden, graphite, composite or metal striker across the surface produces turkey sounds.

Sleet
Rain drops that freeze into ice pellets before reaching the ground. Sleet usually bounces when hitting a surface and does not stick to objects. Forms when snow enters a warm layer of air above the surface and melts and then enters a deep layer of sub freezing air near the surface and refreezes.

Sling (hunting)
You might imply by the name that it is a device for carrying the bow, but this is not the case. It is a wrist strap that fits loosely around the wrist and attaches to the bow, so that the bow will not be accidentally dropped when jumping forwards with a loose grip, upon release.

Slough
A long, narrow stretch of water such as a small stream or feeder tributary off a lake or river.

Small Craft Advisory (boating)
A marine advisory for winds 25 to 33 knots (29 to 38 mph) or seas of 5 feet or more, that may cause hazardous conditions for operators of small vessels.

Snare
A loop made of wire or string and suspended in a runway to catch an animal by the head, neck or body.

Soak
A soak is where water naturally seeps from a fault in a rock wall.

Sound
A wide inlet of the sea or ocean that is parallel to the coastline; it often separates a coastline from a nearby island.

Source (of a river)
The beginning of a river or stream.

Splice (knots)
A knot formed by interweaving strands of rope rather than whole lines. More time-consuming but usually stronger than simple knots.

Splint
(n) Device used to immobilize fractured limbs until they can be assesed by physicians.
(v) Act of immobilizing fractured limbs until they can be assesed by physicians.

Spring
A spring is a point where water flows out of the ground. A spring may flow the whole year or only sometimes. This depends on the water getting into the ground all of the time (rain) or only once in a while (snow melting). A spring often sends water down, along the land. This is how rivers start.

Spring Creek
A creek or stream that gets its water from a ground (underground) flow or spring sources, rather than glacier/snow melt or surface run off. Spring creeks are generally at a temperature of the average rainfall temperature over the course of the year (the source of most ground water) and hence usually do not warm significantly in the summer nor freeze in the winter.

Spring Lines (boating)
Dock lines - usually used as a pair - one from the bow back to the dock and the other from the stern forward to the dock. This arrangement prevents the boat moving fore and aft.

Spring Tide (ocean)
A tide that occurs at or near the time of new or full moon (syzygy) and that rises highest and falls lowest from the mean sea level.

Squall
A sudden storm with wind and rain.

Square Knot
A double knot. Also called a reef knot.

Squaw Hitch (knots)
A basic hitch that is used to lash loads to a packhorse.

Standing End (knots)
The main part of the rope, or that section of the rope about which the end is turned to form a knot, hitch, etc.

Static Rope (climbing)
A non-elastic climbing rope - compare with dynamic rope.

Stob
A dead branch protruding from a tree trunk. May also mean a dead, broken-off tree trunk.

Stopper (knots)
A knot tied to hold a line through a hole.

Strait
A narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water.

Stream
A body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks.

Streambed
The channel being occupied or formerly occupied by a stream.

Stringloop (hunting)
A short loop of string added to the bowstring, and used by release shooters. The arrow in nocked inside of the string loop, and the release clamps onto the loop, causing the pull to be straight back of the arrows center (instead of under), and also helpful in aiding to reduce "torque" induced by twisting of the release.

Stuffer (hunting)
A muzzleloading rifle.

Subglacial Lake
A lake that is permanently covered by ice and whose water remains liquid by the pressure of the ice sheet and geothermal heating. They often occur under glaciers or ice caps.

Summit
The top of a mountain or rock.

Swamp
A type of freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water. Many trees and shrubs grow in swamps.

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