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Spruce (Photos)
Picea spp.
To 200 ft. (60 m)
Four-sided needles grow singly around
hairy twigs. Eat young shoots, inner
bark and use needles to make tea.

Cottonwood (Photos)
Populus spp.
To 100 ft. (30 m)
Leaves are oval to heart-shaped.
Flower clusters are succeeded by
capsules containing cottony seeds.
The inner bark and sap are edible.
Balsam Poplar (Photos)
Populus balsamifera
To 80 ft. (24 m)
Long, drooping flower clusters
are succeeded by oval capsules
containing cottony seeds. Sap
and inner bark are edible.
Trembling Aspen (Photos)
Populus tremuloides
To 70 ft. (21 m)
Long-stemmed leaves rustle in the
slightest breeze. Eat the soft inner bark.
Maple (Photos)
Acer spp.
To 100 ft. (30 m)
Leaves have coarsely toothed lobes. Fruits are a 2-winged samara. The seeds, sap and inner bark are edible.
Cow Parsnip (Photos)
Heracleum lanatum
To 9 ft. (2.7 m)
Large leaves are deeply-lobed. Creamy white flowers bloom in dense, flattened clusters. Roots and leaves are edible in soups and stews. Plant resembles the deadly poisonous water hemlock that lacks large leaves.
Willow (Photos)
Salix spp.
To 60 ft. (18 m)
Most have narrow short-stemmed leaves. Flowers bloom in long, fuzzy clusters. Dried bark and twigs can be boiled to make soothing headache or fever remedy.
White Clover (Photos)
Trifolium spp.
Stems to 12 in. (30 cm)
The common lawn clover, it has rounded, white to red flower heads and leaves with 3 leaflets. Entire plant is edible raw or cooked. Fresh or dried blossoms can be used to make tea.
Lamb's Quarters (Photos)
Chenopodium album
To 6 ft. (1.8 m)
Leaves and stems have a whitish cast. Seeds develop in dense clusters at the junctions of leaves and stems. All parts of plant are edible and are high in vitamins A and C. Seeds can be ground into flour or used whole in soups, stews and baked goods.
Cattail (Photos)
Typha spp.
To 10 ft. (3 m)
All green parts of this marsh plant are edible. The roots of young plants, called Cossack's asparagus, are the most delectable. Green seed spikes can be prepared and eaten like corn on the cob. Collect pollen by shaking flower heads into a plastic bag and adding water to make dough.
Watercress (Photos)
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum
To 10 in.. (25 cm) above water.
Often appears as a bed of floating plants on slow-moving streams. All parts of plant are edible. Collect from unpolluted water sources.
Northern Bedstraw (Photos)
Galium boreale.
To 40 in. (1 m)
Leaves grow in whorls of 4 around the stem. Small clusters of tiny white flowers bloom in summer.
Thistle (Photos)
Cirsium spp.
To 6 ft. (1.8 m)
Leaves are scalloped and prickly. Leaves can be rendered palatable by boiling in several changes of water. Peeled young stalks are a good raw snack. Thistle seeds can be ground into flour.
Common Chickweed (Photos)
Stellaria media
To 8 in. (20 cm)
Sprawling herb has white flowers with 5 deeply cleft petals. Leaves and stems can be prepared like spinach.

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